Applied Ecosystem Services, LLC

  1. Aquatic Life Water Quality Standard

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    The EPA, and many state regulators, consider aquatic life to be the highest designated beneficial use of water. Closely related to this water quality standard is “fishable and swimmable”. The latter is easier to define and to assess attainment: if fish are present all water quality variables suit their needs; when there are no human parasites or known toxic chemicals water quality is swimmable. The aquatic life water quality standard is not as easy to define and measure.
  2. Metals and aquatic life

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    Dissolved metals such as copper, cadmium, and zinc can be toxic to aquatic life, particularly fish. The current tool used to estimate site-specific water quality criteria for a metal is the biotic ligand model (BLM). The BLM intends to quantify how water chemistry affects speciation and biological availability of metals in aquatic ecosystems. This is important because bioavailability and bioreactivity of metals control their potential for acute or chronic harm. A BLM incorporates aquatic chemistry, fish physiology, and ecotoxicology but not ecology.

Providing essential environmental services since 1993.